ANITKABİR


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Cumhuriyetimizin kurucusu Ulu Önder Atatürk' ün ebedi istirahatgahı olan Anıtkabir, 
yurdun dört bir yanından ve yurtdışından gelen ziyaretçilerin akınına uğruyor.

Anıtkabir 2006’da 8 milyondan fazla ziyaretçinin akınına uğradı.

Anıtkabir ve Müze Yerleşim Planı Tıklayınız


ANITKABİR'İN YAPIMININ KISA TARİHÇESİ                                                   ENGLISH

Ulu Önder Atatürk, Türk milletinin bağımsız ve milli egemenliğe dayanan demokratik bir devlet anlayışı içinde yaşaması için yürüttüğü mücadelesinde, milleti ile bütünleşerek başarıya ulaşmıştır.

Türk yurdunu işgal eden düşmana karşı, vatanın bağımsızlık ve bütünlüğünü milletin azim ve kararının kurtaracağını çok sevdiği milletine aşılayan Atatürk, bağımsız Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' ni kurmayı başarmış, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' ni çağdaş uygarlığa götüren yenileşme yolunda Türk Milletine layık inkılapları gerçekleştirmiştir.

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' nin kuruluşunun 15 nci yılında hastalığı ağırlaşarak, 10 Kasım 1938 ' de Dolmabahçe Sarayı' nda ebediyete intikal etmiştir. Atatürk kendisi için bir mezar yaptırmadığı gibi, gömüleceği yer içinde vasiyette bulunmamıştı.

1923 yılında bir sohbet sırasında Atatürk; "Elbet birgün öleceğim, beni Çankaya' ya gömer, hatıramı yaşatırsınız" demiş ve "Beni milletim nereye isterse oraya gömsün. Fakat benim hatıralarımın yaşayacağı yer Çankaya olacaktır" diye eklemiştir.

Türk Ulusunun Atatürk'e karşı duyulan büyük saygı ve minnettarlığının bir ifadesi olan Anıtkabir, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' nin en anlamlı eseridir.

Atatürk'ün, 10 Kasım 1938'de ebediyete intikal etmesinden sonra, dönemin hükümeti tarafından oluşturulan bir komisyon, Anıtkabir'in yerinin seçilmesi için görevlendirildi. Bu komisyon çalışmaları sonunda, oy çokluğu ile 906 rakımlı Rasattepe'de Anıtkabir'in yapılmasına karar verdi. Aynı komisyon tarafından 1 Mart 1941 tarihinde uluslararası bir yarışma açıldı. Bu yarışmayaTürkiye, Almanya, İtalya, Avusturya, İsviçre, Fransa ve Çekoslovakya'dan toplam 47 proje katıldı. Bu projelerden 3 tanesi komisyon tarafından ödüle layık görüldü. Proje yarışma şartları gereğince birinciyi seçme hakkı hükümete verilmişti. Milli konuyu daha başarılı ifade etmesi ve projenin araziye uygunluğu sebebiyle, Türk mimarlar Prof. Emin ONAT ve Doç. Orhan ARDA'nın projesinin Anıtmezar olarak yapılmasına karar verildi. 9 Ekim 1944 tarihinde Anıtkabir'in yapımına başlandı. Inşaat 4 aşamalı olarak 9 yıllık bir sürede 1953 yılında tamamlandı. 10 Kasım 1953 tarihinde ise, Atatürk'ün naaşı, 1938 yılından beri, 15 yıl süreyle muhafaza edildiği geçici kabri olan Etnografya Müzesi'nden alınarak, büyük bir törenle ebedi istirahatgâhı olan Anıtkabir'e defnedildi. Anıtkabir 750 bin m2'lik bir alan üzerine kurulu olup bu alanın yaklaşık 120 bin m2'lik kısmı Anıt Bloğu, geri kalan kısmı ise Barış Parkı'dır.

KADIN HEYKEL GRUBU 

Anıtkabir için yapılan heykel ve kabartmaların konuları, kurtuluş savaşı ve Cumhuriyet tarihimizden ve Atatürk' ün hayatından seçilmiştir.

İstiklâl Kulesi'nin önünde, ulusal kıyafetler giymiş üç kadından oluşan bir heykel grubu vardır. Bu kadınlardan kenarlardaki ikisi yere kadar uzanan kalın bir çelenk tutmaktadır. Başak demetlerinin meydana getirdiği çelenk bereketli yurdumuzu temsil etmektedir. Soldaki kadın, ileri uzattığı elindeki kapla Atatürk'e Tanrı'dan rahmet dilemekte, ortadaki kadın eliyle yüzünü kapamış ağlamaktadır. Bu üçlü grup, Türk kadınlarının Atatürk'ün ölümünün derin acısı içinde bile gururlu, ağır başlı ve azimli oluşunu dile getirmektedir. Heykel grubu Hüseyin ÖZKAN'ın eseridir.

     

ERKEK HEYKEL GRUBU 

Hürriyet Kulesi'nin önünde üç erkekten oluşan heykel grubu vardır. Sağdaki erkek başında miğferi ve kalın kaputu ile Türk askerini , onun yanındaki elinde kitabı ile Türk gençliğini ve aydın insanını, biraz gerisindeki ise yerel kıyafeti ile Türk köylüsünü temsil etmektedir. Heykellerin yüzünde derin acı ile Türk Milleti'nin kendine özgü ağırbaşlılığı ve yüksek irade gücü dile getirilmiştir. Heykel grubu Hüseyin OZKAN'ın eseridir.

 

ASLANLI YOL

Ziyaretçileri, Atatürk'ün huzuruna hazırlamak için yapılmış olan 262 metre uzunluğundaki yolun iki yanında oturmuş pozisyonda 24 tane aslan heykeli bulunmaktadır. Atatürk'ün Türk ve Anadolu tarihine verdiği önem sebebiyle, Türk mitolojisinde güç ve kuweti temsil eden ve Anadolu'da uygarlık kuran Hititlerin sanat üslubu ile yapılan aslan heykelleri, kuwet ve sükûneti temsil etmektedir. Heykeller Hüseyin ÖZKAN'ın eseridir. Aslanlı Yol'un iki yanı çiçekler ve ardıç ağaçlarıyla süslüdür. Yol traverten taşlar ile döşelidir. Yolun sonunda Türk bayrağının ve daha ileride Çankaya'nın görünmesi Atatürk'ün yüce katına gidiş bakımından çok anlamlıdır.

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TÖREN MEYDANI 

Aslanlı Yol sonunda yer alan 15 bin kişi kapasiteli Tören Meydanı 129x84,5 metre boyutlarındadır. Bu alanın zemini; siyah, kırmızı, sari ve beyaz renkte traverten taşlardan oluşan 373 adet halı ve kilim deseniyle bezenmiştir.

BAYRAK DİREĞİ 

Anıtkabir'in Çankaya yönündeki 28 basamaklı Tören Meydanı'na giriş merdivenlerinin ortasında, yüksek bir direk üzerinde Türk bayrağı dalgalanır. Amerika'da özel olarak yapılan 33 metre 53 santim yüksekliğindeki ve 4850 kg. ağırlığındaki bu direk 1953'te, Avrupa'daki çelik bayrak direklerinin en yükseğidir. Direğin 4 metresi kaidenin altında yer almaktadır. Amerika'da yaşayan Türk asıllı Amerikan vatandaşı Nazmi CEMAL tarafından, kendi bayrak direği fabrikasında imal edilerek 1946 yılında Anıtkabir'e hediye edilmiştir.

MOZOLE 

Anıtkabir'in en önemli bölümü olan Mozole'ye çıkan 42 basamaklı merdivenlerin ortasında "Hitabet Kürsüsü" yer almaktadır. Mermer kürsünün cephesi dairesel geometrik motiflerle süslü olup, ortasında Atatürk'ün "Hakimiyet kayıtsız şartsız milletindir." sözü yazılıdır. Kürsü Kenan YONTUÇ'un eseridir. Mozole 72x52x17 metre boyutlarında uzunca dikdörtgen bir plan üzerine kurulmuş olup, önde ve arkada sekiz, yan cephelerde on dört adet 14.40 metre yüksekliğinde kolonlarla çevrelenmiştir. Mozole cephesinde solda Atatürk'ün Türk gençliğine hitabı, sağda ise cumhuriyetin kuruluşunun 10'ncu yıl dönümünde söylediği nutuk taş kabartma üzerine altın yaldızla yazılıdır.

   

ŞEREF HOLÜ 

Şeref Holü'ne bronz kapılardan girilir. Girişte sağda Atatürk'ün 29 Ekim 1938 tarihli Türk Ordusu'na son mesajı, solda ise ikinci Cumhurbaşkanı İsmet İNÖNÜ'nün Atatürk'ün ölümü üzerine 21 Kasım 1938'de Türk Milleti'ne söylediği taziye mesajı yer almaktadır. Girişin tam karşısında pencerenin yer aldığı nişin içinde, Atatürk'ün sembolik lahdi bulunmaktadır. Lahit taşı 40 ton ağırlığında tek parça mermerden olup Osmaniye ilinden getirilmiştir. Lahitin yer aldığı bölüm ise beyaz Afyon mermeri ile kaplıdır. Şeref Holü'nün zemini Adana ve Hatay'dan, duvarlar ise Afyon ve Bilecik'ten getirilen kırmızı, siyah, yeşil ve kaplan postu mermerlerle kaplanmıştır. 27 kirişten oluşan tavan ve yan galeri tavanları Türk halı ve kilim desenlerinden oluşan altın yaldızlı mozaik ile süslenmiştir. Tavan yüksekliği 17 metre olup, yan duvarlarında 12 adet meşale bulunmaktadır. Mozole yapısının üstü, düz kurşun çatı ile örtülüdür.

MEZAR ODASI 

Atatürk'ün aziz naaşı Mozole'nin zemin katında doğrudan toprağa kazılmış bir mezarda bulunmaktadır. Mozole Şeref Holü'ndeki sembolik lahit taşının tam altında bulunan mezar odası Selçuklu ve Osmanlı mimari stilinde sekizgen planlı olup, piramidal külahlı tavanı geometrik motifli mozaiklerle süslenmiştir. Zemin ve duvarlar siyah, beyaz, kırmızı mermerlerle kaplanmıştır. Mezar odasının ortasında kıble yönünde kırmızı mermer sanduka yer almaktadır. Sandukanın çevresinde bütün illerden, K.K.T.C.' den ve Azerbaycan'dan gönderilen toprakların konulduğu pirinç vazolar bulunmaktadır

İSMET İNÖNÜ LAHDİ 

25 Aralık 1973 yılında vefat eden ikinci Cumhurbaşkanı İsmet İNÖNÜ'nün Batı revakında sembolik lahdi, alt katta ise gerçek mezar odası bulunmaktadır. İsmet İNÖNÜ Anıtkabir'e Bakanlar Kurulu Kararı ile 28 Aralık 1973'de defnedilmiştir.

SİNEVİZYON SALONU 

60 kişilik kapasiteye sahip salonda Anıtkabir, Atatürk ve Millî Mücadele konulu belgesel filmler gösterilmektedir. Salon Mehmetçik Kulesi'nde yer almaktadır.

HATIRA EŞYA SATIŞ SALONU  

Burada, Anıtkabir, Atatürk ve Kurtuluş Savaşı'yla ilgili kitaplar, CD'ler ve hatıra amaçlı eşyalar satılmaktadır. Satış Salonu Müdafaa-i Hukuk Kulesi'nde yer almaktadır.

ANITKABİR KİTAPLIĞI 

Atatürk ve Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi Komutanlığı Karargâhı içinde Anıtkabir Kitaplığı bulunmaktadır. Atatürk, Millî Mücadele ve İnkılâplar konulu Türkçe ve yabancı dillerde kitapların bulunduğu bir "ihtisas kitaplığı" olarak araştırmacı ve okuyucuya hafta içi 09.00-12.30 / 13.30-17.00 saatleri arasında hizmet vermektedir.


ANITKABİR YERLEŞİM PLANI

1. İstiklal Kulesi

BARIŞ PARKI: ANITKABİR'İN YEŞIL ALANI ATATÜRK'ÜN "YURTTA SULH, CİHANDA SULH" ÖZDEYIŞİNDEN İLHAM ALINARAK, YABANCI ÜLKELERDEN VE ANADOLU'NUN ÇEŞİTLİ BOLGELERİNDEN GETİRİLEN FİDANLARLA OLUŞTURULMUŞTUR. BU NEDENLE ADINA BARIŞ PARKI DENILMİŞTİR.

GENÇLİK CADDESİ NİZAMİYE GİRİŞİNDEN ASLANLI YOL'A OLAN MESAFE 600 METRE OLUP, YAKLAŞIK 12 DAKİKADA YÜRÜNEBİLMEKTEDİR. ASLANLI YOL'A, 26 BASAMAKLI GENİŞ MERDİVENLERDEN ULAŞILIR. 262 METRE UZUNLUĞUNDAKİ YOL BOYUNCA SAĞDA VE SOLDA I2'ŞERADET ASLAN HEYKELİ MEVCUTTUR.

HÜRRİYET KULESI: KULE İÇERİSİNDE ANITKABİR'İN İNŞAAT ÇALIŞMALARINI GÖSTEREN FOTOĞRAF SERGİSİ İLE İNŞAATTA KULLANILAN TAŞ ÖRNEKLERİ BULUNMAKTADIR.

İSTİKLÂL KULESİ: KULE İÇİNDE ANITKABİR MAKETİ YER ALMAKTA VE FOTOĞRAFLARLA AN ITKABİR TANITI LMAKTAD IR.

MEHMETÇİK KULESİ: KULE İÇERİSİNDE 60 KİŞİ KAPASİTELİ "SİNEVİZYON SALONU" BULUNMAKTADIR. BURADA ATATÜRK VE ANITKABİR LE İLGİLİ BELGESEL FİLMLER GÖSTERİLMEKTEDİR.

ZAFER KULESİ: KULENİN İÇERİSİNDE ATATÜRK'ÜN NAAŞINI TAŞIYAN TOP ARABASI SERGİLENMEKTEDİR.

İSMET İNÖNII LAHDİ: II. CUMHURBAŞKANIMIZ VE BATI CEPHESİ KOMUTANI İSMET İNÖNÜ'NÜN SEMBOLİKLAHDİ BULUNMAKTADIR. MEZAR ODASI LAHDİN ALTINDADIR.

BARIŞ KULESİ: KULENİN İÇERİSİNDE ATATÜRK'ÜN 1935-1938 YILLARI ARASINDA KULLANDIĞI LINCOLN MARKA TOREN VE MAKAM OTOMOBİLLERİ SERGILENMEKTEDİR.

23 NİSAN KULESİ: KULE İÇERİSİNDE ATATÜRK'ÜN 1936-1938 YILLARI ARASINDA KULLANDIĞI CADILLAC MARKA ÖZEL OTOMOBİLİ SERGİLENMEKTEDİR.

BAYRAK DİREĞİ: 33,5METREUZUNLUĞUNDAOLUPTURKASILLIAMERİKAN VATANDAŞI NAZMİ CEMAL TARAFI N DAN 1946'DAANITKABİR'E HEDİYE EDİLMİŞTİR.

MİSÂK-I MİLLİ KULESİ: KULE İÇERİSİNDE TÖRENLERDE ANITKABİR ÖZEL DEFTERİ'NİN İMZALANDIĞI KÜRSÙ İLE ANITKABİR'E YAPILAN ÜST DÜZEY ZİYARETLERİN FOTOĞRAFLARININ SERGİLENDİĞİ 2 ADET PANO YER ALMAKTADIR. BURASI AYNI ZAMANDA ATATÜRK VE KURTULUŞ SAVAŞI MÜZESİ'NİN GİRİŞİDİR.

İNKILÂP KULESİ: ATATÜRK'ÜN KIYAFETLERİ VE KENDİSİNE HEDİYE EDİLEN OBJELER YER ALMAKTADIR.

CUMHURİYET KULESİ: ATATÜRK'l1N BALMUMU HEYKELİ VE ORİJİNAL ÇALIŞMA MASASI YER ALMAKTADIR. AYRICA BU KULEDE "ATATÜRK VE KİTAP" KONULU DOKUNMATİK EKRANLI BİLGİSAYARLAR BULUNMAKTADIR.

MÜDAFAA-İ HUKUK KULESİ (MÜZE ÇIKIŞI): ANITKABİR VE ATATÜRK İLE İLGİLİ ÇEŞİTLİ KİTAPLAR VE HEDİYELİK EŞYALAR ZİYARETÇİLERE SUNULMAKTADIR. BU BÖLÜMDE KARTLI TELEFON HİZMETİ DE VERİLMEKTEDİR.

MOZOLE: MOZOLE CEPHESİNDE, SOLDA ATATÜRK'ÜN Tl1RK GENÇLİĞİNE HİTABESİ, SAĞDA İSE ONUNCU YIL NUTKU ALTIN VARAK HARFLERLE YAZILMIŞTIR. MOZOLE TAVANINA 15-16. YÜZYIL OSMANLI HALI VE KİLİM MOTİFLERİ ALTIN, GÜMÜŞ VE SEDEFLE İŞLENMİŞTİR. BURADAYER ALAN SEMBOLİK LAHİT 40 TON AĞIRLIĞINDA YEKPARE MERMERDİR.

DİNLENME SALONU: MÜZEMİZİ ZİYARETİNİZİN ÖNCESİNDE VEYA SONRASINDA BURADA DİNLENEBİLİRSİNİZ. SICAKSOĞUK İÇECEKLER LE YİYECEK ÇEŞİTLERİ SATILMAKTADIR. KARTLI TELEFON HİZMETİ DE VERİLMEKTEDİR.




ANITKABİR'İ ZİYARET KURALLARI

1. Anıtkabir'e bisiklet, motorsiklet, kamyon ve at arabası ile girilmez.

2. Anıtkabir'e el çantalarından başka hiçbir eşya, çanta, valiz, bavul, torba ve poşet alınmaz. Getirilenler nizamiyelerdeki emanet dolaplarında muhafaza edilir. Ancak bırakılan kıymetli eşyalarla ilgili sorumluluk kabul edilmez.

3. Anıtkabir'e asker ve polis gibi resmi görevli olarak gelenler dışında silahla girilmez. Silahlarnizamiyelerdeki emanetdoiaplarındamuhafazaedilir.

4. Ziyaretçiler araçlarını sadece kendilerine gösterilen otoparkta çizgilerle belirlenmiş yerlere park edebilirler. Park yeri kirletilmez ve araçta bırakılan kıymetli eşyalarla ilgili sorumluluk kabul edilmez.

5. Anıtkabir'in içinde piknik yapılmaz, ateş yakılmaz, çiçekler ve meyveler kopartılmaz, çimlere basılmaz.

6. Ziyaretçiler yanlarında kedi, köpek vb. evcil hayvanlar ile Anıtkabir'e giremez.

7. Anıt Bloğu içerisinde müsaade edilen yerler dışında oturulmaz, düşme tehlikesi olan yerlere yaklaşılmaz.

8. Aslanlı Yol üzerindeki heykellerin üzerine çıkılmaz, oturulmaz.

9. Ziyaretçiler dinlenme salonu dışında hiçbir yerde sigara içemez, elinde yiyecek veya içecekle dolaşamaz, yerlere kabuklu yemiş artıkları ile, kağıt, cikletvb. kirletici maddeleratamaz.

10. Atatürk ve Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi içinde fotoğraf çekilemez ve kamera ile kayıt yapılamaz. Ancak basin ve diğer kuruluşların Anıtkabir'i tanıtıcı film ve fotoğraf çekim talepleri özel izne tabidir.

11. Şeref Holü'ne resmi üniformalı kişiler dışında şapka ile girilmez.

12. Anıtkabir içinde görgü ve terbiyeye aykırı harekette bulunulamaz, gürültü yapılamaz, slogan atılamaz. Bildiri dağıtmak, siyasal ve toplumsal konularda basına demeç vermek ve topluluğa hitap etmek yasaktır. Ulu Önder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk'ün ebedi istirahatgâhına uygun davranışlar sergilenmesine özen gösterilir.

13. Ziyaretçiler müze içerisinde sergilenen vitrin, fotoğraf, tablo, rölyef ve büstlere dokunamaz ve yaslanamaz.

14. Kule içerisinde sergilenen otomobil, top arabası, fotoğraf ve diğer objeleri izlerken uyarı hatları geçilmez.

15. Grup ziyaretlerinde grubun başındaki rehber ve öğretmenler, gruplarının yukarıda belirtilen kurallara uymasından sorumludurlar.

Tsk.mil.tr/anitkabir/index.html

© Telif Hakkı: Bu sitede takdim edilen telif haklı bilgiler ve fotoğraflar T.C. Genelkurmay Başkanlığıdan sağlanan müsaade ile kullanılmaktadır.


 

ATATURK'S MAUSOLEUM                                                                         ENGLISH



  
  
Anıtkabir rises above the Peace Park

Anıtkabir is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the Turkish War of Independence, and the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. It is located in the Anittepe district of the capital city of Ankara. The mausoleum was created as a result of the common desire of the Turkish nation to build a "monumental mausoleum" for Atatürk. After an international competition was held by the Turkish Government in 1941, a jury which evaluated 47 designs from around the world, selected architects Prof. Emin Onat and Asst. Prof. Orhan Arda.

The site is also the final resting place of İsmet İnönü, the second President of Turkey, who was interred there after he died in 1973. His tomb faces the Atatürk Mausoleum, on the opposite side of the Ceremonial Ground.


Anıtkabir: The Turkish nation's window on its past and future

   An outstanding soldier, commander, reformer, statesman and nation-builder—Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. To understand how Atatürk’s legacy is a part of contemporary Turkish society, it is essential to understand how his spirit is not only very much alive, but deeply embedded in the Turkish national consciousness. The reason for this is not only because of what Atatürk did to keep the Turkish nation together, but also for what he bequeath the Turkish people--a modern day nation with the laws and principles needed to democratically govern future generations.
   The trust placed in his leadership during the darkest days of Turkish history, was rewarded by the national unity which he helped forge, and the victorious fight to secure liberty, sovereignty and independence. These achievements gave rise to enduring respect and gratitude which won the hearts of the people, and are still celebrated in the daily life of the nation. Atatürk’s courage and reform-minded ideas also continue to inspire a new generation, and is the reason why Atatürk today is still an influential leader.
   The impressive Mausoleum at Anıttepe is thus not only a commemorative site which pays tribute to a great national leader, but is also
a symbol of Turkey’s existence and a window onto Turkey’s future. The Mausoleum is physical evidence of the enduring principles, vision, and present-day realities of the foundations upon which Turkey was built.
   Lastly, the Mausoleum is not only a testament of the living legacy of Atatürk, but is also an affirmation of the devotion of the Turkish nation to protect and transmit his ideals. The increase in the annual number of visitors is evidence of this devotion.


ANITKABIR
--A TRIBUTE TO ATATÜRK & THE TURKISH NATION

 

   The Mausoleum of Atatürk was created as a result of the common desire of the Turkish people to build a "monumental mausoleum" that would be befitting Turkey’s founder and first president, and its great leader of the Turkish War of Independence. The site that was considered most appropriate was Rasattepe, upon a hill overlooking Ankara, the Turkish capital.
   Atatürk died at five past nine in the morning on November 10 1938 in Istanbul at Dolmabahçe Palace (the nation comes to a halt to honor him each year at this time). Weeping crowds of all ages came from near and far for over a week to pay their last respects to Atatürk. On November 19 the coffin was taken in procession to Sarayburnu from where it was taken onto the battleship Yavuz so that it could be transported to Izmit. From this city on the Asian shore of the Sea of Marmara, Atatürk’s coffin was placed on a specially designated train which travelled at a slow speed throughout the country on its way to Ankara to enable mourners to pay their respects.

   Once the coffin arrived in Ankara on November 20, an official funeral was held on November 21. Dignitaries from many countries attended Atatürk’s state funeral, as the world paid tribute to Turkey’s extraordinary leader. The coffin was moved in a solemn procession by gun-carriage from the Grand National Assembly to the Ethnographic Museum which had been selected as a temporary resting place until a Mausoleum for Atatürk could be constructed. At five past nine on November 10, 1953, Atatürk’s remains were taken from the Ethnographic Museum in a Turkish flag-draped coffin for burial at Anıtkabir.
   The Mausoleum and surrounding area is adorned with statues and relief's created by many of Turkey's talented artists. The site is also the final resting place of İsmet İnönü, the second President of Turkey and Commander of the Western Front, who was interred there after he died in 1973. His tomb in the West Arcade, faces the Atatürk Mausoleum, on the opposite side of the Ceremonial Ground. The grave of İnönü is located beneath the sarcophagus.
   Anıtkabir adjoins the Atatürk War of Independence Museum, which was opened to the public on August 26, 2002 after the original museum which was established in 1960 was expanded (which is the subject of another TDN article). The museum exhibits the personal belongings of Atatürk, uniforms, medals, and gifts presented to him by foreign statesmen. New exhibition areas include room-size panoramas of the re-enactment of historic battles, using special techniques for sound and three dimensional effects, original wartime artefacts, and life-size models. Newly installed thematic exhibitions are presented in showcases in 18 galleries, while other areas are devoted to large scale paintings and portraits of Atatürk’s companions and military commanders. The fourth section of the museum is the Private Library of Atatürk, which includes touch-screen kiosks. The main entrance of Anıtkabir and the museum is located on Anıt Caddesi in Tandoğan.

HISTORY OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF ANITKABİR

   After Atatürk passed away, a special committee was established by the government of the time to choose the location for Anıtkabir. As a consequence of its studies, the commission decided to build the Mausoleum on Rasattepe. After an international competition was held in 1941, a jury evaluated 47 design projects that were submitted from around the world.  The competition was won by Turkish architects Prof. Emin Onat and Asst. Prof. Dr. Orhan Arda, since their design successfully expressed the national will and aspirations of the Turkish people, and was most suitable for the area.
   The construction of Anıtkabir began on October 9, 1944 and was completed in 1953. On November 10, 1953 the body of Atatürk was taken from the Ethnographical Museum, which had been his temporary resting place for 15 years, and was buried in his eternal resting place at Anıtkabir.

   Anıtkabir covers an area of 750,000 square metres and is divided into two parts; The Peace Park and The Monument Block. Reflecting the essen
ce of Atatürk's famous phrase, "Peace at home, peace in the world," plants and trees from different regions of the world and parts of Turkey thrive in harmony upon this hill where Anıtkabir rises above the Peace Park. The Peace Park therefore seeks to promote these universal ideals which serve as an example to other nations and people of the world.

THE MAUSOLEUM & HALL OF HONOR

The Mausoleum is the most prominent part of Anıtkabir with an imposing outdoor stairway of 42 steps which lead up to the entrance. These steps are the most overwhelming section of Anıtkabir as visitors pay their respects and enter into deep contemplation. As one approaches, he or she soon stands before a marble dais where Atatürk's well-known declaration is inscribed, "Sovereignty unconditionally and unrestrictedly belongs to the nation." The platform was designed by Kenan Yontuç, and it is from here that speakers face the ceremonial ground. The Mausoleum has a rectangular plan and is surrounded by eight towering columns of 14.40 meters high along the front and back, with fourteen columns at the sides. This period of Turkish Architecture between 1940 and 1950 is characterized by monumental symmetrical buildings. In addition, Anıtkabir displays Seljuk and Ottoman architectural and decorative features.
   Before the visitor enters the Hall of Honor through its stately bronze doors, to the right and left are two famous inscriptions where two soldiers who have pledged to defend the nation stand. On the right are powerful statements from Atatürk’s speech on the 10th anniversary of the republic. Displayed on the left of the enterence is his inspiring address to the youth of Turkey (“Atatürk’ün Gençliğe Hitabı
”).
   Once the visitor enters
inside the Hall of Honor, all eyes fall upon the “Letter of Condolence to the Turkish Nation,” a stirring proclamation to the nation on the day of Atatürk’s funeral made by Turkey’s second president Ismet Inonu which states: “Peerless hero Atatürk! The fatherland is grateful to you.” Across the Hall of Honor to the right is Atatürk’s last message on October 29 1938 to the Turkish army, who is entrusted to protect the ideals and principles by which the nation was founded. Both insriptions, extremely moving for young and old alike, were added in 1981 on the occasion of the centennial of Atatürk’s birth. Upon entering the Mausoleum the visitor is overcome by quiet personal reflection.
   Inside the niche of the window just across the entrance, there is the symbolic sarcophagus of Atatürk. The sarcophagus is a single piece of 40 tons of marble, brought from Osmaniye. The base of the sarcophagus is covered with white Afyon marble. The floor of the hall is covered with marble brought from Adana and Hatay, and the side walls are covered with marble brought from Afyon and Bilecik (having red, black, green and tiger pelt colors). The ceiling of the Hall of Honor and ceilings of the galleries are supported by 27 beams which are decorated with golden gilt mosaics consisting of Turkish carpet and textile motifs. The height of this grand and commanding ceiling is 17 meters. There are 12 torches on the walls.

THE TOMB ROOM

   The grave and room where Atatürk’s honored body is buried is located on the ground floor and is situated directly under the symbolic sarcophagus placed on the floor above in the Hall of Honor. The room layout conforms to an octagonal plan in Seljuk and Ottoman architectural styles. The pyramidal ceiling is decorated with mosaics in geometrical patterns. The floor and walls are covered with designs of black, white, and red marble. In the center of the tomb room rests a red marble sarcophagus in the direction of Mecca. Brass vases which hold cherished soil from all provinces of Turkey, as well as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and Azerbaijan, surround the sarcophagus. Although this room is not open to the public, live coverage of the room from various angles is presented at a display area in the Atatürk and the War of Independence Museum.

SYMBOLS OF STRENGTH & CONTINUITY

   The large relief depictions of heroic events and historic battles, which are located outdoors and in the Atatürk and the War of Independence Museum, are a salute to the heroes of the Republic of Turkey. One example is the set of statues of a group of three women, by Hüseyin Özkan, located in front of the Tower of Independence. The women represent the common people and are wearing traditional clothes. Two of these women are holding a large wreath that reaches the ground and is made up of sheaves of grain, symbolizing Turkey’s fertile land. The woman on the left holds a cup in her hand, asking in earnest for God’s blessings for their great leader. The woman standing in the middle has covered her face and is a symbol of national grief.
   These statues seek to convey the strength of Turkish will amidst great grief which was unparalled in Turkish history. Though the women share an outpouring of sorrow, they display gratitude, self-respect and the dignity that comes with the recognition of all that was achieved and won. Despite the deep sorrow due to Atatürk's death, the women also reflect the pride, serenity and determination of Turkish women who made countless sacrifices in the struggle for national liberation.
   Another group of figures by the same artist is found across the path facing the women. The statues of three men are located in front of the Tower of Liberty. One figure in uniform and helmet represents the Turkish soldier, to whom Turks are grateful for their past and present sacrifices. The man next to him holding a book represents the Turkish intellectual and youth, and the third man in local dress represents the Turkish peasant. The Turkish nation's virtues, might, intellectual abilities, and great power of will are expressed in their faces along with sorrow for the loss of their leader. These symbols of continuity are a tribute to all those known and unknown, who today and in the past, have made untold sacrifices.

LION ROAD & CEREMONY SQUARE

   The path which leads to the Mausoleum plays an important role in the contemplation of the meaning of Atatürk’s struggle to establish and build a nation. While walking down this path amidst regal lion statues, the visitor contemplates the meaning of his or her visit.
   There are 24 seated lions on both sides of the 262 meters long road. These statues are also the works by Hüseyin Özkan. In Turkish mythology, the lion symbolizes power and endurance. The statues were made in the artistic style of the Hittites, who once founded a civilization in Anatolia. The form of the lion was thus selected due to the fact that Atatürk attached great importance to Turkish and Anatolian history.
   Both sides of the Lion Road are decorated with juniper trees and flowers. Due to the height of the trees the Mausoleum can not be fully viewed until the end of the road is reached—it is then that the monumental building has an unforgettable impact upon the visitor as it becomes visible. The path leads into “Ceremony Square” which has the capacity to hold 15,000 people. The ground is decorated with 373 carpet and kilim motifs of various colors.
   While one walks along the travertine stone path of lions, and upon the ceremonial grounds, the visitor’s eyes focus on a Turkish flag flying in the distance. The flag is continuously displayed at Anıtkabir except on November 10, the anniversary of Atatürk’s death. The flag is in full view as the visitor continues through the square and up the steps which lead to the Mausoleum. Çankaya and the rest of the Turkish capital can also be seen in the distance. The flag pole was the highest of steel flag poles in Europe in 1953 and was made in America. It is over 33 meters long and weighs 4,850 kg. Four meters of the flag pole are underground beneath the pedestal. The flag pole was presented as a gift to Anıtkabir in 1946 by an American citizen of Turkish origin, Nazmi Cemal, who produced it in his factory.

LIBRARY, FILM ROOM & GIFT SHOP

   The Library of Anıtkabir is located in the Headquarters of the Command of Atatürk. The library contains books on Atatürk, the National Struggle, and reforms of the Turkish Republic. Reference material can be found in Turkish and in foreign languages. The facility serves as an "expert library" for researchers and readers on weekdays. Documentaries about Atatürk, Anıtkabir and the National Struggle are shown in the Documentary/Film Room in the Tower of Mehmetçik. The modern facility seats 60 people. A souvenir and gift shop is located in the Tower of the Defence of Rights. Books, CDs, and a range of items, and educational material on Atatürk, Anıtkabir and the War of Independence can be purchased at this store.


A SHORT HISTORY OF ANITKABIR

HISTORY OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MAUSOLEUM

After Atatürk passed away on November 10, 1938, a special committee was established by the government of the time to choose the place for Anitkabir. As a consequence of its studies, the commission by majority decided to build the mausoleum on Rasattepe. An international design competition was held by the same commission on March 1, 1941. Totally 47 projects from Turkey, Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, France and Czechoslovakia applied for the competition. Three of these projects were merited for reward. According to the terms of the competition the right to choose the winner was given to the government. It was decided to apply the project of Turkish architectures, Prof. Emin Onat and Dr. Orhan Arda since it expressed the national theme much more successfully and was suitable for the area. The construction of Anitkabir started on October 9, 1944 and it was completed in 9 years of 4 stages, in 1953. On November 10, 1953 the body of Atatürk was taken from Ethnographical Museum, which had been his tomb temporarily for 15 years starting from 1938, and was buried in his eternal resting place, Anitkabir. Anitkabir is located on an area of 750,000 m2. Approximately 120,000 m2 of this area is the Monument Block, and the rest is the Peace Park.

WOMEN STATUE GROUP

There is the statue group of three women in front of the Tower of Independence wearing traditional clothes. Two of these women are holding a large wreath reaching the ground made up of grain sheaf, symbolizing our fertile land. The woman on the left with a cup in her hand is begging God to bless Atatürk. And the woman in the middle, covering her face with her hand, is crying. This group of statues illustrates proud, calm and eager Turkish women despite the deep sorrow of Atatürk's death. Statue group is a work by Hüseyin Özkan.

MEN STATUE GROUP

The statue group of three men is situated in front of the Tower of Liberty. The one in uniform and helmet represents the Turkish soldier. The man next to it with a book in his hand represents the Turkish intellectual and youth and the one with local dress just behind it represents the Turkish peasant. Turkish Nation's calmness and great power of will are expressed in sorrow on these statues' faces. This statue group is a work by Hüseyin Özkan.

LION ROAD

On both sides of the 262 meters long road, which was built to make visitors ready for the presence of Atatürk, there are 24 lion statues in sitting position. The lion statues, which symbolize power and endurance in the Turkish mythology and which were sculpted in the art style of Hittites, who once founded a civilization in Anatolia, due to the fact that Atatürk attached great importance to the Turkish and Anatolian history, symbolize power and stillness. These statues are also the works by Hüseyin Özkan. Both sides of the Lion Road are decorated with juniper trees and flowers. The road is paved with travertine stones. There is a Turkish flag at the end of the road and Çankaya is seen far ahead. This is very meaningful in terms of approaching the eminent presence of Atatürk.

CEREMONY SQUARE

Dimensions of the ceremony square, located at the end of the Lion Road with a 15,000 people capacity, are 129x84.5 meters. The ground of the ceremony square is decorated with 373 carpet and rug motifs, coloured in black, yellow, red and white.

FLAG POLE

In the middle of the entrance stairs of the ceremony square in Çankaya direction, waves a Turkish flag on the top of a high flag pole. This flag pole made in America, 33 meters 53 centimeters long and weighing 4,850 kg, was the highest of steel flag poles in Europe in 1953. 4 meters of it is beneath the pedestal. It was produced in a factory belonged to a Turkish originated American citizen named Nazmi Cemal and presented to Anitkabir in 1946.


MAUSOLEUM

There are 42 stairs to the mausoleum, which is the most important part of Anitkabir, and right in the middle of these stairs there is the "Speech Platform". The face of the marble platform is decorated with circular geometric motifs, and in the middle one of the epigrams of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk saying "Sovereignty unconditionally and unrestrictedly belongs to the nation" is inscribed on it. Platform is a work by Kenan YONTUÇ. Mausoleum is erected on a long rectangular platform dimensions of which are 72x52x17 meters. There are eight columns of 14.40 meters high on both front and backsides, and fourteen columns on sides. On the front of the mausoleum, on the right side, his speech on the tenth anniversary of the republic and on the left side his speech to the Turkish youth are written with golden leaf letters on the reliefs.

HALL OF HONOR

You can enter the hall of honor through bronze doors. On the right side, there is the last message of Mustafa Kemal to the Turkish Army dated October 29, 1938, on the left side, there is the message of İsmet İnönü on the death of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on November 21, 1938. Inside the niche of the window just across the entrance, there is the symbolic sarcophagus of Atatürk. The sarcophagus is a single piece of 40 tons of marble, brought from Osmaniye. The part where the sarcophagus stands is covered with white Afyon marbles. The floor of the hall is covered with marbles brought from Adana and Hatay, and the side walls are covered with marbles brought from Afyon and Bilecik having red, black, green and tiger pelt colors. The ceiling of the hall of honor and ceilings of galleries on both sides supported by 27 beams are decorated with golden gilt mosaics consisting of Turkish rug and carpet motifs. Height of the ceiling is 17 meters. There are 12 torches on the walls. The top of the mausoleum is covered with a flat lead roof.

THE TOMB ROOM

The beloved body of Atatürk is placed in a grave directly dug into soil in the ground floor of the mausoleum. The tomb room situated right beneath the symbolic sarcophagus in the Hall of Honor of the mausoleum has an octagonal plan in Seldjuk and Ottoman architectural style. Its pyramidal spire is adorned with mosaics of geometric motifs. The floor and the walls are covered with black, white and red marbles. In the center of the tomb room there is the red marble sarcophagus in the direction of Mecca. The brass vases filled with soil brought from every province of Turkey as well as from the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and from Azerbaijan surround the sarcophagus.

SARCOPHAGUS OF İSMET İNÖNÜ

In the West Arcade, there is the symbolic sarcophagus of second president İsmet İnönü who passed away on December 25, 1973. The real tomb room of him is downstairs. İsmet İnönü was buried in Anitkabir on December 28, 1973 by the decision of the Council of Ministers.

MOVIE ROOM

In the room having 60 people capacity, documentaries about Atatürk, Anitkabir and National Struggle are shown. The room is located in the Tower of Mehmetçik.

SOUVENIR SHOP

In here, souvenirs, books and CDs about Atatürk, Anitkabir and the War of Independence are sold. The shop is located in the Tower of Defence of Rights.

LIBRARY OF ANITKABIR

Library of Anitkabir is in the Headquarters of the Command of Atatürk and the War of Independence Museum. Library, containing books about Atatürk, National Struggle and Reforms in Turkish and foreign languages, serves as an "expert library" to researchers and readers on weekdays between 09:00-12:00 /13:30-17:00


LAYOUT OF ANITKABİR  Click here for map

1. PEACE PARK: THE GREEN PARK OF ANITKABİR INSPIRED BY THE QUOTATION OF ATATÜRK "PEACE AT HOME, PEACE IN THE WORLD" CONSISTS OF TREES BROUGHT FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND VARIOUS REGIONS OF ANATOLIA. THEREFORE IT IS CALLED PEACE PARK.

2. THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE ENTRANCE FROM GENÇLİK AVENUE AND THE LION ROAD IS 600 METERS LONG AND ONE CAN WALK THIS PATH IN APPROXIMATELY 12 MINUTES. ONE REACHES THE LION ROAD THROUGH WIDE STAIRS WITH 26 STEPS. ALONG THE 262 METERS LONG ROAD, THERE ARE 24 STATUES OF LIONS ON THE RIGHT AND LEFT SIDE.

3. TOWER OF LIBERTY: IN THE TOWER, PICTURES OF THE CONSTRUCTION PHASE OF ANITKABiR AND SAMPLES OF THE STONES USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION ARE EXHIBITED.

4. TOWER OF INDEPENDENCE: INSIDE THE TOWER PLACED A SMALL MODEL OF ANITKABİR ANDANITKABİR IS INTRODUCED BY THE HELP OF PHOTOGRAPHS.

5. TOWER OF MEHMETÇİK: A MOVIE ROOM WITH 60 PEOPLE CAPACITY IS LOCATED INSIDE THE TOWER. IN HERE, DOCUMENTARIES ABOUT ATATÜRK AND ANITKABİR ARE SHOWN.

6. TOWER OF VICTORY: INSIDE THE TOWER, THE GUN-CARRIAGE CARRIED ATATÜRK'S BODY IS EXHIBITED.

7. SARCOPHAGUS OF İSMET İNÖNÜ: THERE IS THE SARCOPHAGUS OF OUR SECOND PRESIDENT AND COMMANDER OF THE WESTERN FRONT İSMET İNÖNÜ. THE TOMB ROOM IS BENEATH THE SARCOPHAGUS.

8. TOWER OF PEACE: INSIDE THE TOWER, LINCOLN BRAND CEREMONIAL AND OFFICIAL CARS USED BYATATÜRK BETWEEN 1935 AND 1938 ARE EXHIBITED.

9. TOWER OF APRIL 23: INSIDE THE TOWER, CADILLAC BRAND PRIVATE CAR USED BY ATATÜRK BETWEEN 1936 AN D 1938 IS EXHIBITED.

10. FLAG POLE: 33.5 METERS LONG, PRESENTED TO ANITKABİR IN 1946 BY A TURKISH ORIGINATED AMERICAN CITIZEN NAMED NAZMİ CEMAL.

11. TOWER OF NATIONAL PACT: INSIDE THE TOWER THERE ARE THE ROSTRUM WHERE THE HONOR BOOK OF ANITKABİR IS SIGNED AND TWO PANELS ON WHICH VISITS OF HIGH PROTOCOL ARE DEPICTED. HERE IS ALSO THE ENTRANCE OF ATATÜRKAND THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE MUSEUM.

12. TOWER OF REVOLUTION: THERE ARE GARMENTS OF ATATÜRK AND THE OBJECTS PRESENTED TO HIM AS GIFTS.

13. TOWER OF REPUBLIC: THERE ARE THE WAX STATUE OF ATATURK AND HIS ORIGINAL STUDY DESK. BESIDES THERE ARE TOUCH-SCREEN KIOSKS HAVING "ATATÜRK AND BOOK" AS THE SUBJECT IN THIS TOWER.

14. TOWER OF DEFENCE OF RIGHTS (EXIT OF THE MUSEUM): VARIOUS BOOKS AND SOUVENIRS ABOUT ATATÜRK AND ANITKABİR ARE PRESENTED TO THE VISITORS. CARD-PHONE SERVICE IS ALSO PROVIDED IN THIS TOWER.

15. MAUSOLEUM: ON THE FRONT OF THE MAUSOLEUM, ON THE LEFT SIDE ATATURK'S SPEECH TO THE TURKISH YOUTH AND ON THE RIGHT HAND SIDE, HIS SPEECH ON THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE REPUBLIC ARE WRITTEN WITH GOLDEN LEAF LETTERS. OTTOMAN CARPET AND RUG MOTIFS ARE EMBROIDERED ON THE CEILING OF THE MAUSOLEUM WITH GOLD, SILVER AND NACRE. THE SARCOPHAGUS IN HERE IS A SINGLE PIECE OF 40TONS OF MARBLE.

16. CAFETERIA: YOU CAN REST HERE BEFORE OR AFTER YOUR VISIT TO THE MUSEUM. HOT COLD DRINKS AND VARIOUS FOOD ARE BEING SOLD. CARD-PHONE SERVICE IS PROVIDED.

17. WC.

18. CAR PARK.


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